**IMPORTANT NOTE REGARDING WORD LIMIT REQUIREMENTS:**

**Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.**

The purpose of this assignment is to compare basic functions in Excel and SPSS to calculate descriptive statistics and use this information to describe the sample.

For this assignment, students will utilize Excel with the Data Analysis ToolPak and SPSS Statistics and the “Example Dataset” to complete the assignment. Refer to the links below for assistance with enabling the Data Analysis ToolPak on a Mac or PC.

*Part 1:*

Complete the following steps in both Excel and IBM SPSS Statistics.

- Calculate mean, median, and mode for the variables “Annual Income” and “Age.”
**Show the appropriate summary tables for these measures from both Excel and SPSS. Include the other descriptive statistics that are a part of the summary output in Excel and SPSS.** - Create histograms to show the distribution for “Annual Income” and “Age.”
**Copy and paste the histograms from Excel and export the histogram from SPSS into the Word document for this assignment.** - Create frequency tables that include counts and percentages for smoking status, employment status, exercise level, and education level.
**Show the tables in the Word document for this assignment.**

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*Part 2:*

Based upon the Part 1 activities, **write a 250-500 word interpretation that addresses the following.**

- Discuss the
**sampling strategy used in this study and if it resulted in a representative sample.** - Discuss
**what you are able to ascertain about the sample from the descriptive statistics.** - Explain
**what other variables the research team could have included to gain a better understanding of the population.**

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**General Requirements**

Submit **one Word document for the Part 1 assignment** content and a **second Word document for Part 2 of the assignment.**

You are required to cite at least **FOUR** sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the **last 5 years** and appropriate for the discussion question criteria and public health content.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is not required.

While APA style is required, solid academic writing is expected as well, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines.

**This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.**

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**PLEASE make sure APA citation and permalink for articles are complete and correct.**

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**PLEASE** add the links/sites below to the reference list if you use any of these readings and make sure everything is in proper APA format.

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Read Chapters 4 and 5 in *Using and Interpreting Statistics: A Practical Text for the Behavioral, Social, and Health Sciences.*

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View “The Best Stats You’ve Ever Seen,” by Rosling (2006), located on the TED website.

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View the following tutorials from the SPSS Tutorials media.

- Frequency Tables and Histograms
- Descriptive Statistics

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View the following terms in The Visual Learner: Statistics media.

- Confounding
- Histogram

View the following calculations in The Visual Learner: Statistics media.

- Frequency Distribution
- Measure of Center ‘Mean’
- Measure of Center ‘Median’
- Measure of Center ‘Mode’
- Range and Standard Deviation
- Variance

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The “Sampling Distribution” simulation, located on the Rice Virtual Last in Statistics website, will be used for a discussion question in this topic.

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For assistance with using Excel software, use the “Excel Training: Create and Format PivotTables and Pivot Charts” video library, located on the Microsoft website.

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**MUST have at least 4 citations with the page numbers and 4 references in APA format.**(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

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*Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.*

**It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class**

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**I am a stickler for good organization in everything. I do not want to have to dig for your answers. For instance, if an assignment asks you to provide three examples of something, I suggest that you number them 1-3 so I can find them easily. I also expect that when you submit something as a narrative, you pay attention to how you organize your thoughts: use paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences; and change paragraphs whenever you introduce a new idea. Also, if there are multiple parts to an assignment, use sub-heads within the paper to organize them.**

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**To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.**

**REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED.**

**Expert Solution Preview**

Introduction:

This assignment aims to compare basic functions in Excel and SPSS to calculate descriptive statistics and utilize the information to describe the sample. The first part requires calculating mean, median, mode, creating histograms and frequency tables for specific variables and demonstrating the appropriate summary tables in both Excel and SPSS. The second part requires interpreting the results obtained from Part 1, discussing the sampling strategy used in this study, and explaining what other variables the research team could have included to gain a better understanding of the population.

Answer:

The sampling strategy used in this study is not specified in the assignment instructions. Therefore, it is unsure of what type of sampling strategy was used. Random sampling ensures that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. A representative sample means that the sample characteristics represent the population from which it was drawn. The assignment does not provide enough information to determine if the sample is representative or not.

Interpreting the descriptive statistics that were calculated in Part 1 provides information about the sample’s central tendency, dispersion, and shape. By looking at the mean, median, and mode of variables, such as “Annual Income” and “Age,” one can understand the central tendency of the sample. The histogram shows the distribution of each variable, indicating if the data is skewed, bimodal, or normal. The frequency table provides insights into the count and percentage of categorical variables, such as smoking status, employment status, exercise level, and education level, in the sample.

Other variables that the research team could have included are health-related variables, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and body mass index (BMI) to assess the overall health status of the sample. Also, psychological variables, such as stress level and quality of life, would provide a better understanding of the sample beyond just demographics. Including these variables would provide a comprehensive overview of the physical and psychological health of the sample.

In conclusion, this assignment allowed us to compare basic functions in Excel and SPSS to calculate descriptive statistics and to interpret the results. Additionally, the assignment provided insights into the sampling strategy used in the study and variables that could have been included to gain a better understanding of the population.

**Expert Solution Preview**

The sampling strategy used in this study was not specified in the assignment instructions, thus, it is unclear what type of sampling strategy was implemented. A representative sample ensures that the sample characteristics represent the population from which it was drawn, however, there is not enough data provided to determine if the sample is representative. By interpreting the descriptive statistics calculated in Part 1, we can glean information on the sample’s central tendency, dispersion, and shape. Calculating the mean, median, and mode of variables such as “Annual Income” and “Age” can provide insight into the central tendency of the sample. Additionally, the histogram can reveal the distribution of each variable, indicating skewness, bimodality, or normality, while the frequency table displays the count and percentage of categorical variables, such as smoking status, employment status, exercise level, and education level, in the sample. Other important variables that could have been included for a comprehensive overview of the sample’s physical and psychological health are blood pressure, cholesterol levels, BMI, stress level, and quality of life. These variables would provide a better understanding of the sample beyond demographics.