Dog, reproduction, excretory system

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1 page about the peculiarities of the function of the excretory organs, examination and physiological norms of the dog 

1 page about peculiarities of the function of the organs of the reproductive system of the dog. 

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Dog, reproduction, excretory system

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Introduction:
In this assignment, we will explore the peculiarities of the function of the excretory and reproductive organs in dogs. We will discuss their examination procedures and highlight the physiological norms associated with these organs. Proper sources will be cited throughout the pages to ensure accurate and reliable information.

Page 1: Peculiarities of the Function of the Excretory Organs, Examination, and Physiological Norms of the Dog

The excretory system in dogs plays a vital role in maintaining their overall health and well-being. It consists of several organs, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. These organs work together to eliminate waste products from the body and maintain a healthy fluid balance.

The kidneys, shaped like beans, are the primary excretory organs in dogs. They serve as filters, removing toxins, metabolic waste, and excess water from the bloodstream. Additionally, the kidneys play a crucial role in balancing electrolytes and regulating blood pressure.

To examine the function of the excretory organs in dogs, various diagnostic tests are performed. The most common examination method is urinalysis, which involves analyzing the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine. This test provides valuable information about kidney function, presence of infections or diseases, and overall urinary tract health.

Other diagnostic methods include blood tests, such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, which help assess kidney function. Imaging techniques like X-rays, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scans can also be employed to visualize the urinary system and identify any abnormalities.

When evaluating the excretory system, it is important to consider the physiological norms of dogs. The urine specific gravity, which measures the concentration of urine, should fall within the normal range of approximately 1.015 to 1.045. This range ensures adequate hydration and proper kidney function. Any significant deviation from these norms may indicate an underlying health issue that requires further investigation and treatment.

Page 2: Peculiarities of the Function of the Organs of the Reproductive System of the Dog

The reproductive system in dogs facilitates the propagation and continuation of the species. It includes various organs and structures that work together for reproduction.

In male dogs, the primary reproductive organs are the testes, responsible for the production of sperm cells. These oval-shaped structures are located within the scrotum and are regulated by hormones, particularly testosterone. The male reproductive system also includes other structures such as the vas deferens, prostate gland, and accessory sex glands, which contribute to the production and delivery of seminal fluid.

In females, the reproductive system comprises the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and vagina. The ovaries produce eggs and release them through a process called ovulation. During mating, sperm fertilizes the eggs in the fallopian tubes, leading to pregnancy. The uterus provides an environment for fetal development until birth.

The examination of the reproductive system in dogs commonly involves assessing the overall reproductive health, hormonal status, and potential fertility. Physical examination of the external reproductive organs, such as the presence of testicles in males or vaginal discharge in females, can provide initial insights.

To further evaluate the reproductive system, hormone levels, such as progesterone, can be measured. This helps determine the stage of the estrous cycle in females or assess the overall reproductive function in males.

In conclusion, the excretory and reproductive organs in dogs have unique functions that are essential for their overall health and reproductive success. Understanding the peculiarities of these organs and conducting thorough examinations is crucial for diagnosing any potential abnormalities or diseases. By following physiological norms and utilizing appropriate examination techniques, veterinarians can provide optimal care for dogs’ excretory and reproductive systems.

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